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Squire, "Adam's Song in a Commentary of Hilary of. Elizabeth Livingstone. Oxford: Pergamon, , David, the next to Christ, the next to another, the next to the. Ascents were turned into songs about Christians ascending to. Zion, and the Temple all. London: A. Lampe, "To Gregory the Great,". Cambridge History of the Bible, vol. Fathers to the Reformation , ed. Lampe Cambridge:. Cambridge University Press, , Dunphy Edinburgh: T. Clark, , Massey H. Shepherd, Jr. Patristic Tradition," in Studia Patristica 10, ed. Cross, TU. Neale and Richard F. Littledale, A Commentary on.

London: Joseph Masters, n. Though he is not strictly an Origenist, this is the best place. A stumbling-block. But Ambrose taught him to read the Old. Testament spiritually or allegorically, thus lifting the veil from. Augustine, using. Augustine saw the sun in Ps , "which is like a.

Word was made flesh, He found a bridal chamber in the. Virgin's womb. Waltke, "A Canonical Process Approach to the. Lee Feinberg , ed. John S. Feinberg and Paul D. Chicago: Moody, , 4. Oxford: John Henry Parker; F. Rivington, , 1. Here then Christ speaketh in the Prophet: I venture to say,. Christ speaketh. The Psalmist will say some things in this. Psalm, which may seem as if they could not apply to Christ, to.

Which was in the beginning God with God: nor perhaps will. It is important to note, however, that Augustine's exegesis was. Up to. Augustine's time, the question had been whose voice was. Christ, a voice speaking to Christ, or was it the voice of Christ. Augustine combined. As Miller says:. It was left to the ingenious hand of Augustine later to. On this passage, see Marvin E. Tate, "The. Interpretation of the Psalms," RevExp 81 : Early Church Philadelphia: Fortress, , Linton's judgment on this significant exegetical advance is.

Augustine's exegesis and not that of the Antiochenes to be. Middle Ages:. Although it cannot be maintained, that the solution of. Augustine, as to the subject of the Psalms is in any respect. For with Augustine's conception of Christus totus the. However, there were those who opposed this allegorizing, Augustine mentioned above as proof that Christ laid aside his.

Viewpoint," Worship 31 : Stead, "St. Athanasius on the Psalms," VC 39 : Diodore of Tarsus d. AD is usually regarded as the. We have no extant work of. Diodore says nothing about type or antitype, but only about. Commenting on Psalm , he says that it must first be. He is careful to note, however, that the latter is not.

The foremost representative of the Antiochene school was. Theodore of Mopsuestia AD Though his commentary. It is well known that Theodore regarded only four psalms as. But it must be understood that by.

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He still regarded all the psalms to be Davidic and. Theodore considered the period of fulfillment of the prophecy. He pointed out that the psalm could not in any. Zaharopoulos, Theodore of Mopsuestia on the. Inquiries New York: Paulist, , His opponents replied that the psalm had to be messianic. Theodore's reply was that the titles were not always. As for the psalms he did consider to be messianic, his. Throughout the commentary he seeks to. David in each of the psalms. David, being a prophet, wrote the. Psalms with divine guidance and assumed in each one the.

In Psalm 45, argues. Theodore, David has adopted the prosopon of Christ and thus. Theodore know that David is speaking in the person of the. Interpretation of the Bible , 2d ed. Philadelphia: Fortress, , Kugel and Rowan W. Greer, Early Biblical. Interpretation , Library of Early Christianity 3 Philadelphia:. Westminster , , ; Joseph W.

Trigg, Biblical. Interpretation , Message of the Fathers of the Church 9. Wilmington, DE: Michael Glazier, , Messiah here? Zaharopoulos's summary of Theodore's. David, who was. A literal interpretation of this psalm will. The only way out of this. The psalm is more than. According to Theodore,. Consequently, we need not. Prophecy is here clothed with "spiritual metaphor.

Noting Theodore's inconsistency here in allowing a messianic. The esteem in which he held David would. With his emphasis on grammar and literalism,. This leads me to two final observations about the. Antiochene exegesis. First, as many have pointed out. Alexandrians did give attention to the literal interpretation, and. Froehlich says,. At close inspection both allegory and theoria, speak about the. Second, it must be observed here that, no less for the.

Antiochenes than for the Alexandrians, allegory was used, not. And the necessity was caused by. For some, the need was to find. For the Alexandrians,. For Theodore,. Indeed, as Silva has pointed out, though working with a. No wonder then, that, by and large, it was the Alexandrian. It was, indeed, the Alexandrian allegorical method that. Until the fourteenth century there. Isidore of Pelusium felt that a. Theodoret d. Short History , Theodore's work. Psalms seems to be represented in a manual composed by. Junilius Africanus ca. Finally, Isho'dad of Merv 9th cent.

Psalms that defends Antiochene exegesis and refers to. Apart from these few remnants of Antiochene exegesis the. Alexandrian allegory and by the "four-horse chariot" of John. Cassian d. Cassian's four senses of Scripture literal,. The allegory was often highly arbitrary.

Farrar makes. Brown, "The Sensus Plenior of Sacred. Scripture" Ph. Mary's University, , Grant and Tracy, A Short History , Tracy , A Short History , For Antonius, the statement in Ps , "You broke. The main vehicles for the exposition of Scripture and, in effect,. Alexandrian exegesis, in the Middle Ages were the catena and. These were largely compilations of interpretations.

In addition to the catenas and the. All of these perpetuated Alexandrian allegorical. Also, the Psalms were abundantly. History , ; Seybold, Introducing the Psalms , ;. Smalley, The Study of the Bible , chap. Medieval Schools," in Cambridge History of the Bible , vol. The West from the Fathers to the Reformation , ed. Lampe Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , Gregory the Great to Saint Bernard," The use of the Psalter in the great Christian.

Leafblad notes:. It was the tradition to conclude every psalm and versicle. Its use in this manner set the Psalm within a New. Testament trinitarian framework. Furthermore, it served to. More than a mere gesture, this. Christological significance of such texts from the Old. Before passing on to some of the later exegetes who. Judaism, in the face of the Christian proclamation. There was also in Judaism,. Leafblad, "The Psalms in Christian Worship,".

Southwestern Journal of Theology 27 : 48; see also. Bernard," ; S. Lampe Cambridge: Cambridge. University Press, , Rosenthal, "The Study of the Bible in Medieval. Judaism," Cambridge History of the Bible , vol. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , Thus, Psalm 2, traditionally interpreted in. Jewish exegesis of the day of the Messiah, becomes in Jewish. David's coronation. Christian scholars who were more apologetically inclined in. However, for those who were more concerned.

With the founding of the Abbey of St. Victor in ,. Hugh or Hugo of St. Victor d. Psalm 2," Prooftexts 3 : Abraham Ibn Ezra , trans. Lenn J. Schramm Albany: State. Preus, From. Shadow to Promise: Old Testament Interpretation from. Bible , One of his disciples, Andrew of St. His influence is. Herbert declares that he is not. Sometimes he. At times he will choose the literal.

At other times he will. Sensus Plenior," Testament , trans. Wilson [Milwaukee: Bruce, ], My discussion of Herbert's exegesis relies. But here, he is almost. However, he does suggest. In the thirteenth century, with the rediscovery of. Aristotle, the importance of the literal sense as the. He did not at all deny the allegorical or spiritual.

Study of the Bible , Frost also notes that Herbert. Herbert's interaction with Rashi, "In a lively piece of historical. Nicholas of Lyra d. He was in touch with the Jewish scholarship of his day, and. But he was also a Christian who wanted to make the. Psalms relevant to the Christian life, therefore he also. Even though Nicholas is best remembered for his. Preus notes that no one has pointed out i. Oberman, Forerunners of the Reformation: The. Nyhus New York: Holt,. Preus writes:. For the first time in literature, a New Testament reading.

Given Lyra's authority in the years that followed, it. The near-suffocation of. Preus then gives an example of how Nicholas interprets. Psalm 2 literally in regard to the original historical situation, but. Nicholas, this spiritual literal sense does not always result in a. Thus, unwittingly, Nicholas set in. Paul of Burgos d. So, for instance, that the New Testament. Rather, it. Also, with this line of interpretation, Paul seeks. Thus, he faults the Jews, not for their.

James Jacobus Perez of Valencia d. For him,. His commentary on the Psalms. The last interpreter to be considered in this section is. His commentary on the Psalms was published in ,. Promise , Psalms in The only "valid" sense is the. Spirit, who speaks through him. The actual intention of the psalmist that is, David throughout ,. In fact, Faber opposes to that history David's claim. One could scarcely. As Preus states, Faber "has taken what seems to be the shortest,. In this section, we will look at Martin Luther and John Calvin.

Martin Luther. Before he nailed the ninety-five theses to the church door at. Wittenburg on October 31, , Martin Luther In August he began a. From the outset, he exegeted the Psalms as being. This can be seen by comments on various. Jaroslav Pelikan, vol. Lectures on the Psalms I: Psalms , ed.

Hilton C. Herbert J. Bouman St. Louis: Concordia, , 7. Psalm he says, "Literally this refers to the raging of the Jews. Jesus Christ. His scheme, at least in the early part of these. For the most part,.

Luther's Christological exegesis is what Steinmetz has called. All Scripture is written concerning Christ. Because of the. However, during the course of the lectures, there seems to be a. Preus's explanation for this is that. Luther has turned away from the Stapulensis and Perez type of. Preus believes that Luther's hermeneutic, whereby the Old. Testament must be interpreted by the New Testament,. David C. Steinmetz feels that this non-emphasis in individual. Reformation, Duke Monographs in Medieval and Renaissance.

Studies 4 [Durham: Duke University Press, ], Steinmetz, "Hermeneutics and Old Testament. Testament, and then he finally "discovered that the Old. Testament faith and religion were so much like his own that. Church's self-understanding. In his first course as a professor of Bible, Luther's task was to.

Although the text was. He outdid the whole. As he was. Testament but the eloquent first themes of an emerging. Reformation theology. In essence, Preus is suggesting that Luther's. Christological interpretation of the psalms in the early part. Preus's theory has not gone unchallenged, and I do not. Yet, one thing is certainly true:. Psalterium , there is no doubt that a change did occur between this first. Notice his different. At the urging and insistence of my fine students I am. As I expound it, I do not want anyone to.

It is enough to have understood some of the. The Spirit reserves much for. Himself, so that we may always remain His pupils. There is. And as Augustine has put it so clearly, if no. Therefore I must openly admit that I do not know. For everything that blessed Augustine, Jerome, Athanasius,. Hilary, Cassiodorus, and others assembled in their expositions.

For that matter, this second exposition of mine. There is no book in the. Hendrix, Ecclesia in Via:. Ecclesiological Developments in the Medieval Psalms. Exegesis and the "Dictata super Psalterium" of Martin Luther ,. Brill, , esp. Old Testament Interpretation," 26 n. Bible to which I have devoted as much labor as to the. In essence, Luther, humbly but decisively, turns his. Now, for Luther, Psalm 1 is about the "personal. Luther had said that it must be understood literally about. Christ, is now to be understood as portraying "most clearly the. Pelikan, But the difference is that now Luther christologizes only when.

Luther was not. What caused this change in Luther's approach? Some have. When he. But during the years he studied Hebrew. However, I do not believe. Hendrix, "The Authority of Scripture at Work:. Luther's Exegesis of the Psalms," in Encounters with Luther ,. Eric W. Gritsch Gettysburg: Institute for Luther. Studies, Luther Theological Seminary, , ; see also James. Studying the Bible in Judaism and Christianity , ed. Roger Brooks. Preus, as already mentioned, attributes the.

Testament saints themselves, without having to do so through. In his developing doctrine of. Testament faithful without first having to identify with Christ. I believe there is a measure of truth here, though I would want to. That modification will. John Calvin. John Calvin has been called "the first. In his commentary on the Psalms, as far as I can.

Collins, Christianity and Judaism in Antiquity 5. Authority of Scripture at Work," Fullerton, Prophecy and Authority , 81, cited in Bernard. Hermeneutics , 3d ed. All the psalms, except for. Psalm , have their literal meaning in the life of David or. Solomon or whoever the author of the particular psalm was.

Calvin believes in only one literal meaning of the text, but with. For example, Psalm 2 is applied first of all to the reign of. David, but Calvin says, "All this was typical, and contains a. Sometimes, Calvin recognizes the Christological nature of a. A good example of this is Calvin's remarks regarding the New. Testament use of Psalm There still remains another difficulty with this passage.

Apostle, in Heb. Beveridge repr. Russell "Calvin and the Messianic Interpretation. Reform , ed. Knox, , As to his restricting this. David did. But when bringing into view. It is no objection that David soon. Also, as in the case of Luther, there was, I believe, a. I have been accustomed to call this book, I think not. Or rather, the Holy Spirit.

The question that needs to be asked, however, even as in. Does Preus's theory, that this recognition by. Luther caused him to downplay his Christological exegesis,. Did the discovery of the doctrine of. Calvin's exegesis? Perhaps in one way it did, but in another. Torrance remarks:. It was this [doctrine of justification by faith] that led Calvin, as. Justification by grace alone calls a man.

This is hard to understand. How did the doctrine of. And is the same thing necessary for us today? Again, I will. Like Luther and Calvin, most of the other reformers of the. Torrance, The Hermeneutics of John Calvin ,. Press, , Gerald Hobbs, "Hebraica Veritas and Traditio. Apostolica: Saint Paul and the Interpretation of the Psalms in. Century , ed. Steinmetz, Duke Monographs in.

Medieval and Renaissance Studies 11 Durham: Duke. Christological interpretation which was limited to either a. This was the trend that would. This section will give a broad, sweeping. Historical Exegesis of the Psalms," CH 53 : ;. Rabbinic Exegesis by a Christian Hebraist," in Histoire de. Olivier Fatio and Pierre Fraenkel,. David and his son Solomon. See Jerome Friedman, "Servetus. Among Catholic scholars during this time, there was. In conservative Protestantism, allegorical became, more. Christ was present in the Old Testament in. For the psalms, this. Davidic authorship of the psalms was seen as necessary, not.

Kraeling, The Old Testament Since the. Schocken, , Along with this, of course, it was important to. Consequently, the dating of a psalm became a very. David played these roles. Thus, more sophistication was. Some scholars, such as E. Delitzsch used five main categories: typical, typico-prophetic,. Jehovic, indirectly messianic, and purely predictive only. Psalm being in this last category. Hengstenberg, Christology of the Old Testament and a. Commentary on the Messianic Predictions London, ;.

Francis Bolton repr.

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It should be mentioned here as well that there were many. Psalms commentaries on the more popular level which set forth. Treasury of David has been very influential on large segments of the. With all due respect to Gunkel, the truly great expositors for.

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Augustine, Kimchi, Luther, Calvin, the long forgotten Puritans. Donne, and the learned and pious reflections of de Muis,. Francke, and Geier. Admittedly these commentators run the. I fully recognize that "liberal" and "conservative" are loaded. I use the term "liberal" as a convenient label to broadly. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , lxxvi-lxxxv.

The original edition was published in. Childs, Introduction to the Old Testament as. Scripture Philadelphia: Fortress, , Among the various elements in the Psalms that came under. Little wonder,. Testament psalms. Messianism in the psalms, for these. Much of what has already been discussed continued into the. Conservative Protestant scholars still looked.

Liberal Protestant scholars continued. But there have been. What follows is a brief. Interaction with many of these. Comparative studies in the first part of the twentieth century. This reached an extreme in the writings of. Friedrich Delitzsch and his "pan-Babylonianism. Delitzsch, the Psalms were totally unworthy of use in. Christianity and Christian worship, and bore no relationship to.

Christ or the religion of the New Testament. Hermann Gunkel's work and the subsequent work of. Hahn, The Old. Testament in Modern Research , exp. Fortress, , Form Criticism , ed. John H. Hayes San Antonio: Trinity. University Press, , ; Ronald E. Testament Interpretation Philadelphia: Westminster, ,.

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Now, the key was to find the correct. Gattung for any given psalm, and then to determine the psalm's. Sitz im Leben. This had profound effects on both conservative. For both, there was a shift away from the. For those more liberally inclined, there. For at least.

Gunkel and his followers had found that the Sitz im Leben for. For many conservatives, it was enough to. Davidic impetus to the Psalter, and they themselves began to. In other words, form criticism seemed. The liberal could practice form. It is impossible to trace in a brief survey all the developments. Leben of the psalms, in particular the so-called "enthronement". Well known are the hypotheses of Sigmund.

Mowinckel enthronement festival , Artur Weiser covenant. Again, I will be interacting with these in later chapters, but in. Kraus hypotheses into their Psalms interpretation, than that of. Mowinckel's tie-in to the akitu festival and its resemblance to. In particular, those who saw the.

This holds for. Ap-Thomas New York: Abingdon, ;. Oswald Minneapolis: Augsburg,. Keith Crim Minneapolis:. Augsburg , The scholars in this school, known also as the "Scandinavian. Mowinckel had posited the centrality of the. Yahweh's part. King and Messiah , 2d ed. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, ; S. Hooke, ed. Press, ; ed.

Kingship in the Ancient Near East , 2d ed. Uppsala: Almqvist. Johnson, Sacral Kingship in. This school, which had considerable success for a while, has. Babylonian religion has largely been abandoned. For example, in the. Psalms, a work devoted to showing that most of the psalms are. I pray that the truth may be served and not hindered by this.

This line of typological exegesis will be further examined in. Among Catholic scholars, and some Protestant scholars as. Testament and the New Testament has been the sensus plenior ,. Festival: New Insights from the Cuneiform Texts and their. Leuven , , ed. Brill, ,. Naperville, IL: Alec R. Allenson, ; The Psalms Come. Mowbray, ; repr. Brown, will. The sensus plenior is that additional, deeper meaning, intended. There are points in this definition over which there has been.

Congregations not belonging to a denomination are usually called "independent" or "non-denominational" Melton 3. Denomination, Measure of : This divides affiliation within Protestantism into differing religious organizations. This is a standard question available in a wide range of data sets, including the General Social Survey , Baylor Religion Survey and the U. It is suggested that a denominational continuum exists within each religious tradition e. Denominationalism : Denominationalism refers to the subdivision of a particular religion.

A common example is Protestant Christianity in the United States, which is subdivided into multiple denominations e. Deuterocanonical Books : See Apocrypha. Devotionalism : The frequency at which an individual performs religious rituals and comparable behaviors, notably prayer and Bible reading, often measured independently of group activities such as church attendance Roof Dharma : The proper course of conduct, norms and ultimate realities in the Buddhist religion. Dharma is central to Buddhist practice.

The term also exists in Hinduism and Brahmanic thought as a set of ritual actions sanctioned by the priestly class Smith and Green Dialectical Imagination : A religious perspective emphasizing the individual and the withdrawal of God from the sinful world.

The dialectical imagination contrasts with the analogical imagination , which stresses the community and the expression of God through every aspect of creation. The differing concepts were developed by Andrew Greeley , who believed that Catholics tend to have analogical imagination while Protestants tend to have dialectical imagination. Diaspora : The dispersion of a religious people outside their geographic homeland, where they must live as a minority among others Esposito et al. Differential Association : Edwin Sutherland postulated that criminal behavior was chiefly learned within intimate personal groups as mental associations between concepts and definitions of situations are learned in complex patterns of communication with others.

Applied to the study of religious conversion, this theory suggests that the frequency, duration and intensity of definitions and information favorable to a given religion, if greater than unfavorable ones, may lead someone to convert. Diocese : The wider regional structure connecting parishes and other local organizations that is overseen by a bishop Reid et al. Disaffiliation : The opposite of conversion , disaffiliation refers to the process of leaving a religious organization or disavowing one's former religious identity. Disciple : A pupil who is attached to a specific teacher or way of life Smith and Green In the Christian tradition, John the Baptist and Jesus had disciples.

Peter is a famous disciple of Jesus. The term also has been used in the Buddhist tradition. For example, Ananda was a disciple and cousin of the Buddha. Dispensational Premillennialism : The belief held by some Christians that the current dispensation, or historical period, is near the end, and will conclude with the rapture of the believers into heaven.

Jesus will come down from heaven to fight the Antichrist and establish a thousand-year reign of peace. This type of theology was made popular by the Scofield Reference Bible and the fictional Left Behind book series. It is one of the most popular forms of prophecy belief in the United States Prothero Dispensationalism : A Christian theological view that divides history into several periods, or dispensations. God's plan for salvation differs according to the dispensation Smith and Green Divination : The determination of the hidden significance of things through a variety of techniques.

Divination often is performed by specialists and is historically common in Chinese and Japanese religions Smith and Green Divinity : A term frequently used prior to the 20th century to refer to the study of theology or the "science of divine things. Doctrine : An official teaching of a religious group. Religious bodies and officials often establish doctrine through written statements or councils.

In a Christian context, the Trinity serves as an important doctrine. Dogma : Dogma is understood as a principle component of a religious ideology that is non-disputable. The Greek word is "dokeo," which means "appears. In a non-liturgical setting, it has a pejorative connotation.


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Dome of the Rock : A domed shrine in Jerusalem that houses the rock upon which the Prophet Muhammad ascended into the Seven Heavens during his night journey. Dominionism : The belief that Christians should hold positions of power in society and government based on biblical law. Dominionism has close ties to Christian nationalism , which suggests that it is important to reunite church and state in the United States because the Founding Fathers believed in a Christian nation.

Easter : A Christian holiday commemorating the resurrection of Jesus Christ three days after his crucifixion. It is known as "Pascha" by Orthodox Christians Prothero The Catholic and Orthodox churches were originally united, but they parted in the eleventh century, when they differed over several points of doctrine, including the supreme authority of the pope, which Orthodox Christians reject Melton Since the 20th century, the Catholic and Orthodox churches have made greater efforts toward reconciliation.

Ecclesiastic : A broad term for anyone who specializes in religion. Economic Theories of Religion : The understanding of religious phenomenon through economic theory and principles. Ecumenism : A movement supporting closer relations and unity between Christians.

Often this means denominational dialogues and even mergers Reid et al. Eddy, Mary Baker : Mary Baker Eddy founded the Christian Science movement , a religious body that believes illness is an illusion. She helped establish a church of , members and founded the Christian Science Monitor , which still exists today.

For more on Mary Baker Eddy, click here. Edwards, Jonathan : Jonathan Edwards is the most influential theologian in American religious history and helped start the First Great Awakening. He was a Congregational preacher with a calm preaching style, though he is ironically known for his passionate sermon entitled "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God". For more information on Jonathan Edwards, click here. Egyptian Book of the Dead : A collection of more than prayers , spells, and illustrations to ensure a peaceful afterlife for the dead.

Eightfold Path : As a culmination of the Four Noble Truths in Buddhism , it charts the course from suffering to nirvana. It is further divided into three parts: wisdom right view and right intention , morality right speech, right conduct, and right livelihood , and concentration right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration.

It also is known as the "middle way" Prothero Elder : In various churches , especially the Presbyterian-Reformed tradition, the elders are laypeople who share authority and leadership with the clergy Smith and Green For more information on Ralph Waldo Emerson, click here. Encyclical : A statement or document on an important issue written by the pope or bishops to fellow Catholics. These statements often pertain to controversial social issues, like poverty Rerum Novarum , , human rights Pacem in Terris, , contraception Humanae Vitae , , as well as abortion, birth control, euthanasia, and capital punishment Evangelium Vitae, Prothero End-Times : The belief that the world is coming to an end and God's kingdom will be established.

See Apocalypse. Enlightenment : The experience of knowing the cause of suffering in the Buddhist tradition. Eschatology : A broad theology concerning the End-Times , and processes of salvation. The term was first used in the nineteenth century with the advent of critical biblical studies. Topics in eschatology include Armageddon , millennialism, the Second Coming , and the Messiah Smith and Green Eucharist : The Christian ritual that focuses on the life, burial, and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

The term has existed since the second century CE and comes from a thanksgiving prayer that acts as an important element of the rite. European Free Church Family : Churches that left established and state churches in Europe over the belief that congregational activity and membership should be voluntary and free of state control. Examples of these churches include the Society of Friends Quakers and the Evangelical Covenant Church, which is the result of a schism from the Church of Sweden in the 19th century Melton Evangelical Protestantism : A movement in Protestantism emphasizing one's personal relationship with Christ , the inspiration of the Bible , and the importance of sharing one's faith with non-believers.

Evangelical Protestantism is usually seen as more theologically and socially conservative than Mainline Protestantism , although there is obviously variation between denominations , congregations , and individuals within the "evangelical" category Reid et al. Evangelism : The Christian practice of sharing the gospel of Christ with non-believers.

This term comes from the New Testament Greek word "euangelizomai," which means "to proclaim the good news" Reid et al. Evangelist : One who engages in evangelism. See evangelism. Excommunication : The banishment of an individual from a religious community. This practice exists in some Jewish and Christian communities Smith and Green The practice dates back thousands of years prior to the Common Era and across various societies.

Physical and mental illnesses were indistinguishable from one another, as diseases and mental instability represented the presence of unappeased spirits according to pre-modern civilizations. Extrinsic Religion : Using religious participation and affiliation to achieve practical rewards, such as social status. This is in contrast to intrinsic religion , which pertains to internal motivations for religious activity. The concepts of extrinsic religion and intrinsic religion was developed by Gordon Allport Differences between intrinsic and extrinsic religion can be understood as differences in religious orientation Allport Faith Healing : A term usually limited to the Christian practice of restoring health by means of prayer , divine power or the intervention of the Holy Spirit Smith and Green Family, Religious : See religious family.

Fanatic : A derogatory term for someone overly zealous in their religious faith Smith and Green Fasting : The religious practice of abstaining from food for a certain period of time. There are various forms of fasting in the three Abrahamic religions: Judaism , Christianity and Islam.

The Jewish passover includes a fast, Lent usually includes a chosen fast for Christians, and Ramadan in Islam includes a month-long daytime fast Smith and Green Fatalism : The belief that all events are predetermined, and human effort is therefore irrelevant Smith and Green Fatwa : The legal opinion of a private religious scholar concerning Islamic law. This opinion often guides certain legal rulings Esposito Feminist Theology : A system of religious thought that interprets practices and scriptures through a feminist perspective.

It tends to challenge male-dominance in religious language, authority, and scripture. This perspective spans across Christian , Jewish , Muslim , and other religions Lippy and Williams Financial Contributions, Measures of : These survey items measure how much a respondent gives to his or her religious congregation or organization. Finney, Charles : Charles Finney was a prominent evangelist and revivalist during the Second Great Awakening. Licensed by the Presbyterian Church , Finney began conducting revivals in small New York towns and then spread to large urban centers, including Philadelphia, Boston, and Rochester.

Like many revivalists, he was criticized for using emotionalism and abandoning traditional religious teachings. For more information on Charles Finney, click here. Fiqh : Human interpretation and application of divine law in Islam Esposito et al. First Great Awakening ss : The First Great Awakening ss was a series of religious revivals in the 18th century that propelled the expansion of evangelical denominations in the colonies.

For more information on the First Great Awakening, click here. Five Pillars of Islam : The five essential practices of Islam. These include shahada profession of faith , salat worship , zakat alms-giving , saum fasting and Hajj pilgrimage. The observance of these pillars differs between Sunni and Shi'ite traditions Hinnells These four truths include: the Existence of Suffering which characterizes human life , the Origin of Suffering which is ignorance , the Cessation of Suffering through nirvana , and the Path to the Cessation of Suffering through the Eightfold Path Prothero The first stage of primal faith is a stage where individuals, often at infancy, learn emotional trust based on contact and care that sets up the foundation for faith.

The final stage of universalizing faith allows the individual to feel one with God. Free-Rider Problem : In general, a free-rider problem occurs when individuals take advantage of common resource or common goods without paying for or contributing to them. Free-riding is more common in low commitment religious organizations and may explain some of the decline that Mainline Protestant denominations have experienced Stark and Finke Because of this, religious identification tends to be stronger within high commitment groups compared to low commitment ones Stark and Finke Frequency of Prayer, Measure of : This survey item measures how often a respondent prays.

Frequency of Reading Sacred Texts : This survey item measures how often someone reads sacred texts such as the Bible , Koran , sutras etc. Freud, Sigmund : Considered the father of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud is one of the most influential thinkers of the 20th century. His ideas on the unconscious, dreams, child sexuality, and the libido are influential academic concepts, but Freud also had a unique conceptualization of religion. As evidenced by the title of his book Future of an Illusion , Freud believed religion was a false belief system passed down by primitive ancestors.

Similar to his notion of the Oedipus Complex, God represents a childlike longing for a father. Future of an Illusion has been accused of succumbing to the genetic fallacy, in which the truth or falsity of belief is tied to its origin Whittaker Friar : A member of the mendicant orders of Roman Catholicism Reid et al. Friends at Church, Measures of : These survey questions ask respondents where they met their closest friends or if the majority of their close friends are found in their church. Examples of this measure are found in the National Study of Youth and Religion and the U.

For more information on Charles Fuller, click here. However, other researchers argue that some of the items may not measure spirituality but measure the results of spirituality. With studies using dependent variables measuring meaning and hopefulness, this leads to unclear circular findings, as these studies correlate good mental health with itself Koenig et al.

Functionalism : According to this perspective, religion exists because it serves an integrating function for society as a whole. Durkheim suggested this when he argued that God represents the society, and in worshiping God, society really reveres itself. Unlike theories of the rise and fall of civilizations, functionalists do not consider the survival of a religious culture to be problematic.

While flavors of this theory are common in older writings on religion , among the best texts to consult are Durkheim and Parsons Fundamentalism : 1 A movement of Protestants embracing similar beliefs as evangelicals , although usually in a more conservative direction, stressing separation from the world and from more liberal Christian bodies. The term derives from a series of booklets entitled The Fundamentals , which were published in the early 20th century on what were viewed to be the basic doctrines of Christianity.

Gabriel : An archangel in Jewish , Christian and Islamic traditions. In Christianity, he is known for announcing to Mary that she will bear the Jesus , the savior of humanity. In Islam, he is known as "Jibril," and is known for visiting the Prophet Muhammad in a human form.

It was Jibril who revealed God's messages through Muhammad, and who also guided Muhammad during his night journey through the heavens Smith and Green Gentile : Anyone not Jewish Esposito et al. Ghost : The appearance of a dead person, usually thought of as a disembodied spirit. In Korea, ghosts operate as malevolent spirits who died prematurely and are therefore unfulfilled, like unmarried women, young children or drowning victims Smith and Green Gibbons, James : James Gibbons was an important American cardinal archbishop who guided the Catholic Church through the influx of Irish immigrants in the 19th century.

Moreover, he mediated relations between American Catholics and the Vatican. For more information on James Gibbons, click here. Global Meaning : In the psychology of religion, global meaning refers to general life meaning that involves beliefs, goals and subjective feelings. Religion often is invoked with regard to this concept. For the experiential dimension, religious people achieve direct knowledge of the ultimate reality and experience religious emotion. For the ideological dimension, religious people hold certain beliefs. For the ritualistic dimension, religious adherents are expected to engage in specific religious rituals.

For the intellectual dimension, religious people are expected to be knowledgeable with regard to the basic tenets of their faith. And for the consequential dimension, religion should have a consequence on the actions and attitudes of adherents. For example, the experiential and consequential dimensions are strongly correlated with one another, as are other categories see Hood, Hill and Spilka Gnosticism : A term used for a category of religions that emphasize knowledge as a means to salvation.

Its origins and age are debated. Since there have been Gnostic interpretations of Christian , Jewish , Greek and Iranian philosophies, it is not necessarily a religion as much as it is an interpretative perspective of specific religious phenomena Smith and Green Judaism , Christianity , and Islam often mention God as the supreme and sole deity.

Goddesses are more common in Eastern religions, especially Hinduism Smith and Green Variations of this precept are attributed to Confucius, Muhammad and the rabbi Hillel Prothero It functions as a somber time of reflection and meditation with regards to the crucifixion of Jesus Christ Reid et al. Gospel of Wealth : A religious doctrine that maintains that wealth is the natural product of moral character, diligence and faith Reid et al. In Greek, "gospel" refers to "good news.

Many believe that Mark is the first gospel, and that Matthew and Luke borrowed some of their material from Mark. For this reason, they are known as synoptic gospels, while the Book of John is believed to be written later, and contains information not found in the synoptic gospels Prothero Government Favoritism : When a government provides subsidies, privileges, support, or favorable sanctions for a select religion or a small group of religions.

Government Regulation Index GRI : This measure assesses the extent to which a government regulates the religious economy present in the country. This index is composed of multiple individual survey items, including government restrictions on public preaching and individual rights to worship. Government Regulation of Religion : The restrictions placed on the practice, profession, or selection of religion by the official laws, policies, or administrative actions of the state.

Grace : The term refers to an expression of unmerited divine love and assistance given to humans from God Esposito et al. In Christianity , God's grace is expressed through the sacrifice of his Son, Jesus Christ , on the cross for the redemption of human sin. Graham, William "Billy" present : Billy Graham was the preeminent Christian evangelist of the second half of the 20th century, preaching to millions in the United States and abroad.

His "crusades" throughout his career were attended by very large audiences. For example, the Los Angeles Crusade was attended by more than , people. He was friends with Martin Luther King, Jr. For more information on Billy Graham, click here. Scholars trace some of the early translations to as far back as the third century B. This is in contrast to guilt-oriented, intropunitive religion, which focuses on punishment toward oneself. This is in contrast to guilt-oriented, extrapunitive religion, which focuses on the punishment of others.

Guru : A spiritual and cultural leader. Sometimes disciples perceive their guru to be semi-divine Esposito et al. Hadith : A narrative report of what the Prophet Muhammad said and did based on the accounts of his followers, which supplements the Koran Smith and Green It is required for Muslims to make the pilgrimage at least once in their lifetime, if they are physically able and can afford it Hinnells On each night a candle is lit on a special Hanukkah menorah , and presents are exchanged Hinnells Hasidism : A form of Judaism that is orthodox in that it emphasizes the fulfillment of all Jewish precepts and ritual, and yet it also incorporates mystical aspects.

It originated in the Ukraine during the 18th century through the efforts of rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov. He taught that all men were equal under God, and that piety, devotion, purity and prayer were more important than study, learning or ascetic practices. A strong emphasis on tradition, social service, celebration, communal life and experimenting with radical ideas is characteristic of Hasidic practice.

In the last generation, the Hasidim became the fastest growing segment of American Judaism, due to proselytization and high birth rates Melton Health Behaviors, Religion and : Health behaviors include physical activity, diet and nutrition, weight, cigarette smoking, risky sexual activity and sleep Koenig et al.

Healthy-mindedness, Individual Religion of : An optimistic, happy, extroverted, social faith. The tendency to look on all things and see them as good James Heaven Christianity : The dwelling place of God, angels and redeemed individuals in the afterlife. It functions as the ultimate reward for the redeemed, as opposed to hell , which is the punishment for the damned Smith and Green To find information on survey questions related to heaven, click here.

Hell Christianity : A place for the damned in the afterlife after Judgment Day. Hell originally referred to the dark regions of the underworld, but now it refers to the eternal separation between individuals and God. Whether hell is everlasting or a temporary state of existence is often debated Smith and Green This concept is tied to the early Christian tradition, as the Church attempted to dispel certain Hellenistic philosophies.

It also is evident in Judaism and Islam , although in these religions it is often more related to religious behavior, instead of religious beliefs Smith and Green Herfindahl Index : The Herfindahl Index is most commonly used in economics to measures the market share of industries. Heschel, Abraham : Abraham Joshua Heschel was an important Jewish theologian and social activist in the 20th century. He boldly supported the civil rights movement and walked with Martin Luther King, Jr.

For more information on Abraham Heschel, click here. Hijab : An Arabic term referring to any partition separating two things, but most commonly it refers to a veil or head covering worn by Muslim women Prothero He fled after his enemies made a failed assassination attempt on him. His flight to Medina led to the establishment of the first Muslim community.

The year of the flight CE now serves as the first year in the Muslim lunar calendar Prothero Hinduism : The name given for the majority religion of India. There is no central authority in Hinduism, although most Hindu groups and traditions believe in reincarnation and venerate gods and goddesses who are viewed as manifestations of God. Sanskrit texts known as Vedas are sacred scriptures in Hinduism, and they were composed between and BCE.

Around million people identify as Hindu in the world, and 97 percent of Hindus live in India Smith and Green Holiness Family : Churches that emerged out of the Methodist churches in the United States as they sought to restore John Wesley's teachings of personal holiness and total sanctification perfection. The movement originated in the mid-nineteenth century. Holiness bodies include the Church of the Nazarene and the various Church of God denominations Smith and Green Holy Spirit : A term widely employed in the New Testament , and used at points in the Old Testament , although in a different context.

In the Old Testament, the Holy Spirit came upon prophets in order for them to transmit God's message to others. In Christianity , it describes the third person in the Trinity. The archaic term for the Holy Spirit is "holy ghost. The rite of washing feet also is sometimes practiced, just as Jesus washed his disciples' feet at the Last Supper.

Holy Week : A Christian celebration of the passion, death and resurrection of Jesus. This practice probably began in fourth-century Jerusalem Smith and Green Homily : Similar to a sermon , though usually briefer and most often given in Catholic churches. In the Catholic Church, it is often a short interpretation of a Gospel passage during the Eucharistic liturgy Smith and Green Homo religiosus : A term referring to the universal practice of religion by all humans.

From the earliest period of human history, religion has been the center of human culture and social life. The term was coined by the comparative religions scholar Mircea Eliade Esposito et al. House Churches : Gatherings of believers held in the home of a Christian individual or family.

They existed from the time early Christianity began, and continue to exist with the advent of new independent Christian groups. Some view it as providing intimacy and community that is more difficult to find in larger churches Reid et al. Hubbard, L. Ron : L. Ron Hubbard founded Scientology , a controversial new religious movement.

Once a science fiction writer, he became interested in the human condition and detailed techniques to rid humans of destructive behaviors in his famous book entitled Dianetics In , he opened the first Church of Scientology in Los Angeles. He was accused of being a cult leader and a fraud. Hughes, John : John Hughes was an important New York archbishop who oversaw growth in the American Catholic Church due to Irish immigration and advocated Catholic parochial education. For more information on John Hughes, click here.

Humanistic Religion : A type of individual religion centered around humans and their strengths. Self-realization, not obedience, is the main virtue of humanistic religion Fromm Hymn : A worship song. Influential hymn writers include Fanny Crosby and Charles Wesley. Hymnal : A collection of hymns , typically organized in a book for worship.

Icon : A religious sacred image. Icons are an integral part of worship in Eastern Orthodox Churches. Ideology : A more-or-less coherent system of statements about the world that often achieve some degree of consensus in a formal religious organization or diffuse religious subculture. A broader term than religion , ideology refers to a belief system that is constructed and maintained to deal with moral issues in personal experience and social relations.

All adequately functioning humans operate from some form of belief system, which establishes the mental schemas from which they derive patterns of action. Idiothetic Approach to Religion : In the psychology of religion, the idiothetic approach to religion is steeped in clinical or pastoral methods, implemented by a pastoral counselor or therapist.

The assessment is individual-based, intuitive and the information is not readily available for public analysis. Because of this, idiothetic approaches tend to use qualitative methods, like personal interviews. Idiothetic approaches vary from nomothetic approaches, which tend to more empirical, reproducible and reliable, often using quantitative or experimental methods Hood, Hill and Spilka Idol : A pejorative term for any three-dimensional, or sculpted figure, or more broadly, a figure representing a god or goddess used for worship.

Many world religions use such figures in their religious rituals , but Western religions, including Judaism , Christianity and Islam , forbid the worship of idols Smith and Green Idolatry : A pejorative term for the alleged worship of idols. In Judaism , Christianity and Islam , it often loosely refers to the worship of other beings or things besides God Smith and Green Ijma : A term referring to the agreement of Muslim scholars on the interpretation of legal questions.

Their consensus is seen as authoritative Esposito et al. Images of God : Images of God are a collection of survey items that tap into personal theologies pertaining to God's nature. Typically, these measures ask respondents their beliefs pertaining to: God's level of engagement or distance from the world, wrath or anger, and love see Froese and Bader Imam : For Sunni Muslims , the imam is the prayer leader of a mosque.

For Shi'ite Muslims , the imam is a direct descendant of the Prophet Muhammad that leads the congregation in all areas of belief in practice. Many Shi'ite Muslims believe that there will be a "hidden imam" that will come in the end-times to bring peace and justice to the world Prothero Immaculate Conception : A teaching of the Roman Catholic Church that the Blessed Virgin Mary , by a singular grace and privilege of God, through the merits of her son Jesus Christ , was preserved from the stain or effects of original sin from the first moment of her conception by her parents.

This teaching is not the same as the virgin birth of Jesus Reid et al. Incarnation : In Christian theology , it is the eternal Word of God embodied in the flesh of Jesus during his time on earth Esposito et al. Independent Fundamentalist Family : Churches that left mainline and evangelical denominations in Out of the initial 39 men who formed the movement, twelve were Congregationalists , three Presbyterians , nineteen Independents, one Baptist , and four with no denominational affiliation.

The movement was a response to modernity, as they believed that other churches were too liberal in theology. The Independent Fundamental Churches in America is the largest of these separatist bodies Reid et al. Institutional Theory, New and Old : Old institutional theory Selznick and new institutional theory Meyer and Rowan are both concerned with how organizations adapt to forces from their institutional environment and particularly how organizations do so in order to maintain legitimacy.

Unlike new institutional theory, old institutional theory is mostly reactive in its adaptation and views organizations through the natural perspective, wherein people in the organization have different goals but see the usefulness in working together through the organization to obtain resources. In new institutional theory, organizations are rational, implying that they are formalized and goal-driven in pursuit of legitimized ideals, though adaptation for the purpose of legitimacy may have little to do with efficiency or best organizational practices, often leading to organizational similarity over time DiMaggio and Powell Intelligent Design : A theory that posits that both the universe and individual organisms are too complex to be a result of either chance or random selection, thus pointing to an "intelligent designer.

Interactive Ritual Chain Theory : Interactive Ritual Chain Theory IRC is a perspective focusing on the interactions and the emotional input and feedback of individuals within those interactions. These factors include the physical co-presence of interactants, exclusivity of the group, a mutual focus and mood and bodily synchronization. Importantly, IRC theory also situates religious actors in social space and outlines the linkages between ritual , affect and belief. Interfaith Dialogue : A movement attempting to foster closer relations between different religions Smith and Green Interfaith Marriage : When spouses in a marriage identify with different religions e.

Typically, this excludes interdenominational marriages e. Intrinsic Religion : Religion that serves as its own goal, motivated by internal desires. Michels argues that democracy is nearly impossible to maintain within an organization, because as an organization grows larger, representative democracy becomes difficult as large groups eventually will be unable to fit into a single room and make decisions quickly. As a result, leaders will emerge to ease the decision-making process. Social movements are one way to provide a check on these systems and, as religious organizations have been central to many social movements, this concept may help to explain the motivation for and consequences of some religious or religiously involved social movements.

Irreligion : Irreligion refers to individuals who are "not religious. Islam : The religion founded by the Prophet Muhammad , who is believed by followers to be the final prophet. The word "Islam" means "submission. Muslims practice the Five Pillars : praying , fasting during Ramadan , almsgiving , pilgrimage and a testimony of faith. There are two divisions of Islam: Sunni and Shi'ite. The Muslim community split due to different opinions on leadership succession Prothero Islamic Center : A building that operates as a community center, similar to Christian or Jewish community centers.

It usually has educational programs, sports activities, computer classes, religious classes and a prayer room. Islamic centers are either stand alone or incorporate a mosque Esposito Islamism : Ultraconservative Islamic movements that use their religion to advance a political agenda. The term is pejorative, and often aimed at groups like al-Qaeda. It also is known as "political Islam" Prothero Israel : 1 A term for the Jews as a religious people. Jahiliyya : In Islam , it means unbelief or ignorance.

This term is used to describe the pre-Islamic era Esposito et al. Jain : An adherent of Jainism. Jainism : An ancient Indian religion that teaches no supreme deity, although some Hindu gods are recognized. The religion stresses non-violence and takes its authority from spiritual teachers known as Jinas. There are two major sects , the Digambaras and Shvetambara, and both have different canons of scripture Parrinder Jehovah's Witnesses : A worldwide Christian society noted for their use of "Jehovah" as the name of God and their assertive proselytizing efforts through door-knocking.

Charles Taze Russell founded the movement in the s with hopes of restoring the Church to the beliefs of first-century Christianity. Some of their prominent beliefs include: hell is not a place of eternal torment, the entire Bible is the inspired Word of God, a rejection of the Trinity , living in the "last days" of the world millenarianism , and converting every person into a Witness Melton In Christianity, Jesus performed miracles there and spent his last weeks there. Jesus Christ : The founder of the Christian religion. Many Christians believe that he is the Son of God, who died for human sin , and was raised in order for all humans to have salvation.

Muslims believe that Jesus was an important prophet , but he was not the Son of God, nor do they believe in the Trinity. The nature of Jesus' form, in terms of his physical form and divine form, has been debated over the centuries in what is known as Christology Smith and Green Jews : A term originally referring to inhabitants of Judea, but now refers to adherents of Judaism , or individuals who strongly identify with Jewish culture Smith and Green Jews for Jesus : A term referring to a contemporary movement of young Jews to Christianity and a missionary agency.

The movement began in the late s during the "Jesus Movement. Jihad : A term derived from Arabic that means "to struggle. Muslim extremists and critics of Islam emphasize jihad as a "holy war," while most Muslims do not Prothero Jimmy Carter's Election : In , Jimmy Carter became the first self-proclaimed "born again" Christian elected to be president of the United States. For more information on this historical event, click here. Jinn : An invisible order of beings who are either good or evil in Islam. They hold extraordinary powers and are held accountable for their actions before God Smith and Green Joan of Arc : A 15th century French saint, martyr and national hero Prothero John F.

Kennedy's Election : John F. Unlike Al Smith , an earlier Catholic candidate, Kennedy was able to overcome suspicions that his faith would impede his ability to successfully govern. He was assassinated during his first term, in For more on John F. Kennedy and his presidential election, click here. John the Baptist : A first-century figure who appears in Josephus' Antiquities and in the New Testament gospels as a prophetic forerunner to Jesus Christ. Many believe that he was associated with the baptist movements in Judaism at the time and preached baptism for the purification of sins Smith and Green During the Second Vatican Council in , Catholic leaders and Orthodox representatives began discussing greater efforts of ecumenism between Catholic and Orthodox churches, which came to fruition in This event reflected a growing desire for reconciliation between both churches and led to firmer ecumenical relations after centuries of mutual excommunication.

Jones, Jim : The founder of the controversial religious movement known as the People's Temple. See People's Temple for more information. Today, there are 15 million Jews worldwide, making it the third largest religion, and there are 5. Judgment Day : A Christian term for the imminent last period of the world when Jesus will render a verdict of salvation or damnation for human beings Smith and Green Judson, Adoniram : Adoniram Judson was one of the first American missionaries to travel to Burma, inspiring other Protestants to engage in overseas missionary work. For more information on Adoniram Judson, click here.

Jung, Carl : Carl Jung was a psychoanalyst who helped found analytical psychology. Kaaba : The most sacred space in the Muslim world. It literally means "cube" because it is a cube-shaped structure that contains a sacred black stone, which Muslims believe is a meteorite upon which Abraham was willing to sacrifice his son, Ishmail, to display his submission to Allah in Christianity, it was his son Isaac who Abraham nearly sacrificed; and this has become a key distinction between the two religions.

It is located in the Grand Mosque at Mecca , and many Muslims visit it every year as part of their pilgrimage. Muslims pray in the direction of the Kaaba everyday Esposito Kaballah : The Jewish mystical teachings which offer esoteric interpretations of Jewish law. It comes from the Zohar, a thirteenth century CE multivolume text, and covers topics ranging from angels to the afterlife Prothero Kama Sutra : A popular Hindu scripture , originally intended as a sex manual for courtesans.

It was written around CE by Hindu thinker Vatsyayana. It provides different types of kisses and different sexual positions for intercourse Prothero Karma : A term in Sanskrit referring both to an action and its consequences. It drives the never-ending cycle of birth, life, death, and rebirth in the eastern religions of Buddhism , Hinduism , Jainism , and Sikhism Prothero Khatam : The seal or last of the prophets. In Islam , the Prophet Muhammad is the khatam Esposito et al. Khutba : A sermon delivered at the Friday prayer session in a mosque Esposito et al.

He is the most recognizable figures in in the Civil Rights Movement of the s and s. For more information on Martin Luther King, Jr. Kingdom Hall : A meeting place for Jehovah's Witnesses , which are usually built by Witnesses themselves Melton Koan : A Buddhist riddle designed to foster spiritual growth, posed by a monastic leader to junior monks.

An example includes: "What is the sound of one hand clapping? Koran : The sacred text of Muslims , and the ultimate authority in Islam regarding law, religion , and ethics. It literally means "recitation. Muhammad's recited these revelations, which his followers memorized and later complied into a canon. It consists of surahs , or chapters, which are organized from largest to shortest.

As a result, the Koran is not arranged chronologically, which can be confusing for those unfamiliar with the context of each surah Prothero The Koran is four-fifths the size of the New Testament. Koresh, David : Leader of the breakaway Christian Adventist group known as the Branch Davidians and self-proclaimed final prophet. His birthname is Vernon Howell, but he took on the messianic name David Koresh in He died in after government officials raided the Branch Davidian compound outside of Waco, Texas Smith and Green See Branch Davidians for more details. Kosher : Jewish dietary laws that include permissible and restricted foods from one's diet.

These guidelines were set forth in the Torah , and later elaborated in postbiblical Jewish law. Animals with cloven hooves and who chew their cud are forbidden to eat, like pigs. Some explain that kosher laws exist for hygienic reasons, as well as symbolic reasons, like discouraging the assimilation of non-Jewish neighboring communities Smith and Green Laity : Non-ordained members of Christian churches. The term's root meaning comes from the Greek "laos," which means "the people. Some Protestant denominations claim that there should be no distinction between laity and clergy, at least in a theological sense Reid et al.

Last Rites : The Catholic sacrament preparing members for death, which usually involves applying oil to the dying person and hearing his or her last confession Reid et al. Last Supper : The New Testament narrative of Jesus' last meal with his disciples prior to his arrest, trial and crucifixion. This event is commemorated through the Christian rite of Communion , also known as the Eucharist Smith and Green The purpose of the movement is to restore New Testament Christianity.

The Latter-day Saints' main authority is the Book of Mormon , along with a distinct translation of the Bible. Mormons moved westward from New York after religious persecution. Some of their distinct doctrinal views include: baptism for the dead, eternal marriage and the corporeality of God. They also refrain from tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine. Lent : A 40 day period of fasting that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends on Easter.

The purpose of fasting is to encourage spiritual discipline and devotional reflection. These 40 days usually don't include Sundays. Roman Catholic , Orthodox , Anglican , and some Protestant churches celebrate this practice. Li : In Confucianism , it refers to individual performances needed for personal development. These include services to others and various rituals Esposito et al. Liberal Religious Family : Consists of churches and associations stressing the primacy of reason and experience over the authority of doctrine and sacred texts.

It emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in hopes of making Christianity more relevant to modern times Reid et al. Liberation Theology : A system of Christian thought that reflects on structures of oppression and emphasizes divine judgment on the oppressors. It began in Latin America in the s as a response to explain extreme poverty, and God's response to these conditions. In North America, it has been used to explain racial and gender inequalities.

Some have criticized liberation theology for using Marxist concepts Smith and Green Life Satisfaction : Life satisfaction is a cognitive assessment of an underlying state thought to be relatively consistent and influenced by social factors Ellison et al. Liturgy : A set order of public worship , often comprised of chants, prayers and readings. Catholic , Eastern Orthodox and Anglican churches have more ornate liturgies than other churches that stress preaching and the singing of hymns Reid et al. Lord's Prayer : The most popular prayer in Christianity , and widely recited by Christians today.

It comes from a passage in the Gospel According to Matthew, where Jesus' disciples ask him how to pray. Prothero Luther, Martin : A German monk and theologian who became a leader in the sixteenth century during the Protestant Reformation. He was excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church after publishing his 95 Theses, which challenged the Church's doctrines and practices.

Luther placed importance on justification by grace through faith, and the Bible as the sole authority for Christians, not scripture and tradition as Catholics assert. His ideas helped pioneer Protestant thought. He is the founder of Lutheranism Prothero Lutheran Family : Christian churches following the teachings of sixteenth century reformer Martin Luther , particularly his teaching on justification by faith and scripture alone sola scriptura.

It is one of the most liturgical Protestant movements, along with Episcopalianism. Lutheranism is more prominent in the Midwestern United States, particularly among those with German ancestry.

There has never been a Lutheran president of the United States Prothero Madrasa : The term is most often used to describe Islamic schools, including Islamic universities, seminaries, primary and secondary schools. The term literally means "a place where learning or studying occurs. Critics of Barack Obama have equated madrasas with terrorist training schools in order to malign the president's early schooling Esposito Magic : A term referring to all efforts to manipulate supernatural forces to gain rewards, or avoid costs, without a reference to a god or gods or to general explanations of existence Stark and Finke Mahayana Buddhism : A school of Buddhism that is much more open to the role of nonmonks in the faith.

The goal for this school of thought is the ultimate salvation of all living beings. This universalist tendency helped to carry the faith across Southeast Asia to Japan. The school dates itself to Ananda and other early disciples of Buddha Melton On the dyadic level, spouses uniquely incorporate religion into their behavior and beliefs e. According to Mahoney, these three relational dimensions are interdependent and help explain why religion produces positive family outcomes.

This term emerged in the youth counterculture of the s, and was used pervasively in the s by journalists and scholars. While Mainline Protestantism is usually seen as more theologically and socially liberal than Evangelical Protestantism, there is obviously variation between denominations, congregations, and individuals within the "Mainline" category Reid et al. Marital Instability, Religion and : Marital instability is ongoing conflict in marriage either because of communication problems, disagreements about parenting or gender roles, financial difficulties, lack of trust, or presence of alcohol or drug problems Koenig et al.

Lack of marital happiness, infidelity, abuse and divorce represent aspects of marital instability. It can arise out of unrealistic cultural expectations for marriage Cherlin ; Nock , marital problems from parents Amato and Patterson ; Whitton et al.

Survey of the New Testament (Faith & Action Series Book 1013) Survey of the New Testament (Faith & Action Series Book 1013)
Survey of the New Testament (Faith & Action Series Book 1013) Survey of the New Testament (Faith & Action Series Book 1013)
Survey of the New Testament (Faith & Action Series Book 1013) Survey of the New Testament (Faith & Action Series Book 1013)
Survey of the New Testament (Faith & Action Series Book 1013) Survey of the New Testament (Faith & Action Series Book 1013)
Survey of the New Testament (Faith & Action Series Book 1013) Survey of the New Testament (Faith & Action Series Book 1013)
Survey of the New Testament (Faith & Action Series Book 1013) Survey of the New Testament (Faith & Action Series Book 1013)
Survey of the New Testament (Faith & Action Series Book 1013) Survey of the New Testament (Faith & Action Series Book 1013)

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